The history of the computer continues to progress from generation to generation. We will discuss the history of a brief but complete here. Computers, of course, we are already familiar with this one device.From the first created, the computer has changed and developed very rapidly. Now the computer is not just for word processing and data, computers have become items “versatile”. We play games, listen to music, create animations and movies, completing school assignments and others, all of them can be solved by a computer. The computer system at the gauze supermarket to read the code of groceries, a call center that handles millions of calls and communications, computer networks and the Internet that connects various places in the world, all of them using a computer. In order not to miss, then we must learn computers as early as possible.
Computer History and Development
Do you know when the computer was first created? And what about the history of its development to become a sophisticated computer today? Well, on this occasion we will invite you to look back to know how the computer is first started its history.We will equally see the computer evolved with the times to reach the present form, happy reading.
Generation Computer History I – V
The origins of the history of computer development can not be separated from the human need to be able to know how the results of a calculation, ranging from very simple calculation to very complicated. In order to obtain an accurate and quick information, people are always trying to look for and find a calculating and processing tools for better data. At first the entire tools calculate manually driven by human power (Manual Year Period 1000 BC – 1641 AD), then calculate developing tools using mechanical propulsion using a toothed wheel handlooms (Mechanised Period 1642-1885). In further developments, tools count, engine mechanics began using electric power (Electromechanical period 1886-1945), and on the latest developments using electronic circuit (Electronic Period 1946 – present).
On Electronics period that we begin to enter the computer generation. Here is an explanation of each of the computer generation:
Computer Generation I
The history of the first generation began attending in 1946 – 1956, some of the main characteristics of this generation include:
- Using a vacuum flask (vacuum tubes) as a circuit.
- The physical size of large computers that require a spacious room and wearing a large electric power.
- Having external storage media such as magnetic tape or magnetic drum.
- Can only be handled by a machine language (machine language)
As an example of the first generation of this include:
ENIAC (Electronik Numerical Integrator and Computer)
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) which was developed in 1946 by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert of the University of Pennsylvania is the First General Purpose Electronic Computer.
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) has been using magnetic tape as a medium for input and output. Is the first commercial computer that used by the US Census Bureau to be used in calculating the population census and as a first purpose-built business applications.
IBM 701 and IBM650
IBM650 IBM 701 and is already a large commercial computers. Already using a magnetic drum for external storage media.
Computer Generation II
The history of second-generation computers became popular in the early 1960s.Some of the main features of this generation include:
- Already using transistors to the circuit. Transistor developed at Bell Laboratories in 1947.
- Smaller, fast, reliable, and energy efficient than the first generation of computers.
- Using assembly language consisting of abbreviations to replace the binary code
Examples of second generation computers developed when it was IBM 1401. Since 1965, the majority of large businesses use computers to process the generation of financial information.
Computer Generation III
As examples of this third-generation computers include:
IBM S / 360 is designed for business and engineering.
GE 600 dan GE 235
General Electric mengeluarkan GE 600 dan GE 235.
National Cash Register NCR seri Century
Computer Generation IV
Fourth generation computer history (1971), some of the main features of this generation include:
- Starting developed micro computer that uses a processor with a general purpose microprocessor developed by Intel (Intel 8080)
- Began to use LSI (Large Scale Intergartion) who is compaction thousands IC (Integrated Circuit) in a chip. Later developed into a VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration).
- In this generation most machines have an operating system with a GUI concept (Grapihical User Interface). Such as Microsoft Windows operating system made in Microsoft Corp .
As examples of this fourth generation of computers include:
Apple II, which was developed by Steven Jobs and Steve Wozniak. The above picture Apple II by Steven Job and Steve Wozniak.
IBM PC compatibles with mass produced by various companies so that the micro computer socialized until today. IBM PC continues to evolve from the IBM PC / XT, the IBM PC / AT, IBM PC / 386, IBM PC / 486 using a microprocessor Intel 8088, 80286, 80386, 80486, and then are Intel Pentium series. Which produces microprocessor company Intel in addition, there is also the company AMD (Advanced Micro Devices).
Computer Generation V
The history of the computer generation of V developed since 1985, some of the main characteristics of this generation include:
- In Japan established ICOT (Institute for New Computer Technology) to develop a fifth-generation computer, which creates a powerful computer and intelligent.
- The development of computer systems that have an element of artificial intelligence that can do the job characteristics with humans (intelligent, imagination and intuition) with a natural language (colloquial).
Figures Computer developments
In the history of computers, a row following persons are those who are instrumental in the development. Among them was Charles Babbage, Ada Augusta Byron, Herman Hollerith, Thomas Watson, Bob noyse and Gordon Moore, Steven Jobs and Steve Wozniak, Bill Gates and Paul Allen, Richard Stallman, Linus Torvalds.Here we will see what kind of services the figures:
An inventor and mathematician who was born in England in 1791. Successfully making machine model, called the Difference Engine and designed the Analytical Engine. Known as Father of Modern Computers sebuatan (Father of the Modern Computer) for the Analytical Engine design has five elements found in modern computers, namely:
- An input device (input device).
- Storage of data to be processed.
- Processing tools.
- Processing controller unit
- Output device (output device)
There Augusta Byron
Known as the first programmer (First Computer Programmer) for help develop instructions to run the Analytical Engine.
1886 makes Tabulating Machine used to calculate the results of the population census in 1890 the United States quickly. 1896 founded the Tabulating Machine Company, and in 1924 merged with two other companies and formed the International Business Machines Corporation – IBM Co.
In the years 1924 – 1956, leading the International Business Machines (IBM) and managed to bring IBM dominate the market as a supplier of data processing machines and start to become developers of leading computer. Since 1981, IBM entered the microcomputer business with the introduction of the IBM PC.
Bob Noyce dan Gordon Moore
Founded Intel in 1968 and in 1971 introduced the first microprocessor (4004).
Steven Jobs dan Steve Wozniak
1976 introduced the Apple I, the first computer with a keyboard and screen. Formed Apple Computer Inc. and developed the Apple II. Apple first company to develop the use of the mouse on his personal computer in 1983.
Bill Gates dan Paul Allen
As the founder of the company Microsoft. 1980 IBM chose Microsoft to develop an operating system for the IBM PC and the result is an operating system known as MS-DOS. In 1990 the company Microsoft dominates the software market (software) with the growing extent of the use of the Microsoft Windows operating system with any software application for business, engineering, education, and personal.
1984 started the project GNU (GNU’s Not Unix), a Unix-like operating system which is free software. 1985 founded the Free Software Foundation institutions that sponsored the development of free software.
1991 developed the Linux operating system which is then distributed Open Source.Linux operating system widely applied to servers on a network system.